March 20, 2013
Watching Wildlife in Spring
A time of courting, mating, building, laying, gathering... whew!
Spring is a season of natural drama: awakenings, departures and arrivals, territorial disputes, courtship songs and displays, nest building, egg laying, and frenzied food gathering.
The fever-pitch celebration of life makes spring a wonderful time for watching wildlife.
- Woodchucks begin awakening from hibernation in late February or early March. Males emerge first, wandering from den to den in search of females. Females chase off most suitors and raise their young on their own.
- Overwintering insects such as lady bird beetles have been sheltering in the soil, under leaves, rocks, or logs, or inside plant stems. Mourning cloak butterflies are among spring’s first butterflies, because they winter as adults rather than larvae, emerging from tree cavities when temperatures go above freezing.
- Spring peepers are astonishingly loud sentinels of spring, considering the lima-bean-sized bodies of these tiny woodland frogs. Once temperatures go above freezing, males gather in small pools of water and sing choruses to attract females.
Wildlife departures and arrivals
- Juncos and white-throated sparrows throughout much of the U.S. are busy fattening up for their spring migration north. They migrate at night, when the air is calmer, making flight less taxing.
- Yellow-bellied sapsuckers are among the first migratory birds seen in northern states in spring. When the tree sap they feed upon begins to run, they tap rings of holes in the trunks and high limbs soft-barked trees, causing the nutritious sap to flow out. The sap attracts and captures tiny insects, adding to the meal. In early spring when other foods are still scarce, the sapsucker’s sap wells help support 35 other bird species.
- Ruby-throated hummingbirds rely on the yellow-bellied sapsuckers’ sap wells while waiting for nector from flowers to become available and appear to help the sapsuckers defend their sap wells against other birds. Since the ruby-throat’s appetite is small, their presence is a benefit to the sapsuckers.
- Monarch butterflies begin their incredible migration from Mexico in March. Their progression northward coincides with the blooming of milkweed, which they find using chemical receptors on their antennae and legs. They lay eggs on the leaves of milkweed plants, which become food for the hatching larvae.
Territories, courtship, and nest-building
- American robins head northward when the “vertical migration” of their favorite food--earthworms—begins. (After wintering in the soil below the frost line, earthworms tunnel to the surface just in time to feed the arriving hungry robins.) A male robin heard singing all day in one place is establishing his territory.
- American woodcock males (also called “timberdoodles”) perform an amazing skydance as a courtship display. Before dawn and dusk in early spring, the male zooms skyward, spiraling higher and higher. At the peak of the climb, he chirps while flying in a circle; then he plummets to the ground before repeating the dance.
- Ruby-throated hummingbirds gather soft dandelion down, strong and stretchy spider silk, and bits of leaves and lichen as camouflage for their nests. Within 5-6 days, the tiny nest is ready for two jellybean-sized eggs. The young hatch after about 2 weeks and fledge in about 20 more days..
Suggestions for wildlife watching
- Keep your binos handy by the door. Record your wildlife observations in a daily calendar or journal.
- Start a sketchbook of interesting sightings.
- Keep a camera handy for those unexpected moments.
- Participate in a citizen science program, such as NestWatch.
Create a sanctuary
Enjoy the company of your wild neighbors in your own yard. Every day, more and more wildlife habitat is lost to the spread of development. But you can help wild animals in urban and suburban areas by offering them sanctuary in your own backyard (or front yard, roof-top garden, or deck), no matter how small. Learn how your green space can become an Urban Wildlife Sanctuary.