Guinea pigs have a lot of appealing qualities: They're small, gentle and personable, just to name a few. Like all companion animals though, they require special care and attention. Here are some important questions to consider before adopting a guinea pig:
Where should you get a guinea pig?
Instead of creating more demand for guinea pigs by purchasing one from a pet store, please visit your local animal shelter to adopt one—or better yet, two! Most shelters accept small animals who need new homes and you will have the satisfaction of saving a life. There are species-specific rescues in some locations, and websites like Petfinder often have rodent species from shelters and rescues advertised.
How much time do you have?
Guinea pigs need time out of their cage and attention from human companions every day. Whether this time is spent stretching their legs and exploring new environments or cuddling in your lap, daily interaction and attention are essential for a guinea pig's well-being.
Guinea pigs need to be groomed regularly. Shorthaired breeds can be maintained with a once-a-week brushing while longhaired breeds require daily grooming. They also need their nails trimmed regularly or they can grown into their paw pads.
A guinea pig's cage should be thoroughly cleaned on a weekly basis and spot-cleaned every few days. If you don't enjoy the smell of a dirty cage, consider how your guinea pig—who spends nearly all of their waking hours just inches above their bedding—feels about stinky living quarters.
Is a guinea pig right for your family?
If you're getting a guinea pig for your child, consider how this animal’s care will fit into your family's schedule over the long haul.
- Can your son or daughter incorporate pet ownership into a busy after-school schedule and evening and weekend commitments?
- Are you willing to shoulder responsibility for your pig's care if your children drop the ball?
- If you have other pets, how will you ensure your guinea pig will get enough attention?
Sign up to receive our exclusive e-book full of important information about caring for your pet, including training techniques and answers to frequently asked questions.
Do you have young children?
Young children often lack fine motor control and self-restraint, which means they may inadvertently drop a guinea pig, squeeze them or scare them into biting. Guinea pigs require a gentle touch and may be easily startled by sudden movement and loud noises.
What's your budget?
The adoption fee for a guinea pig is typically small, but there are significant startup costs and ongoing needs. The initial purchase of equipment and supplies is likely to include:
- A large cage or modular enclosure.
- Bedding material; paper bedding is better than wood, as wood shavings can give off volatile compounds—especially when overly dirty—which can cause respiratory and foot problems.
- A small box for hiding.
- A food dish.
- A water bottle.
- High-quality pellets.
- Timothy hay.
- A lot of fresh veggies and fruit for treats.
Are you prepared to spend at least several hundred dollars a year on your new friend (not including regular veterinary costs) if your guinea pig needs to be treated for a common condition like mites or requires emergency veterinary care? Guinea pigs require periodic checkups just like other domestic pets. Spaying and neutering are recommended, and they can become ill like any other animal or human.
Guinea pigs are prone to dietary and dental issues. They can develop life-threatening GI issues relatively quickly. It is ideal to have a veterinarian who can treat the species lined up before committing to adopting a guinea pig.
Are you willing to hire a pet sitter or board your pig when you go on vacation? They require daily feeding and maintenance.
Are you willing to adopt a second guinea pig?
Guinea pigs are social animals who do best with the companionship of another pig. Preventing a solitary guinea pig from becoming lonely and bored is a tall order, even for someone committed to spending a significant amount of time with their animal every day. Some rescues will not adopt to people who will not agree to a pair.
Do you know whether you're allergic?
Some people are allergic to guinea pigs. These allergies are a reaction to proteins in the animal's saliva and urine (contrary to popular belief, the culprit isn't hair or dander, although they often transmit these allergens during handling and close contact). Hay and wood shavings can also cause allergies.
If you've never lived with a guinea pig, test the waters by visiting a household that has one or spend time handling adoptable guinea pigs at your local humane society or rescue group foster home—you might meet your new best friend in the process!
Guinea pigs live an average of five to seven years. This lifespan is longer than many other small pets such as hamsters, gerbils, mice or rats, all of whom only live up to a few years. If your life is in transition, a guinea pig may be more portable than a dog or a cat, but five years or more is still a significant period of time.